There is no specified data or information on Greek gods and goddesses that exist. Whatever we know about the Greek deities is from Homeric poems such as Iliad , Odyssey and the other poems that are related to the Greek Epic Cycle.
A large contributing work that dates, specifies and provides a narration about the Greek gods and goddesses is the Theogony , a large scale synthesis, written in poetic form using the Greek Epic dialect. This poem, which was written by the famed poet and writer Hesiod, narrates the 3 generations of Greek gods and goddesses and their power. Apart from the 3 generations, a description of several significant and important events relating to gods and goddesses, in the Greek mythology, have also been included. Theogony is today connoted to be an accurate source of information about the Greek gods and goddesses.
The poem begins with the cosmology as stated by Greek mythology, and ends with some of the events of Odyssey, instrumentally covering 3 generations and their lifetimes. The poem is written from the point of view of narration. It must be noted that several similarities exist in the Theogony and works of other religions and cultures. All Greek gods and goddesses represented some or the other faction of nature, life, the universe, and also human psychology. The gods and goddess and their powers are representations or depictions of forces of nature. Hence, they tend to depict powers which they represent.
Let’s have a look at the list of Greek gods and goddesses, and their powers. Greek Gods and Goddesses and their Powers: Primordials The first generation of Greek gods and goddesses include the ‘Primordials’ or ‘Protogenoi’, or the first gods. The term Protogenoi in fact means primeval or first born ones. The Primordial were the originators of the lineage of gods and ultimately the parents of mankind. In Greek mythology, these deities are descendants of ‘Chaos’. Let’s have a look Sr No. Name of God Notes/Powers 1.
Chaos The vast nothingness and dark void from which everything else appeared is termed to be chaos. This god is often considered genderless, and is a neutral immortal, who hosts the other protogenoi. The family tree of Greek gods begins with Chaos. In some cases, Chaos is depicted to be a woman as she mothered all the protogenoi, other gods, and thus humanity. The feminine literary context for Chaos is used in poetry. 2. Gaia Mother Earth or Gaia, was the most important of all other protogenoi, especially for us humans, as she mothered mankind and nature. Though Chaos had several other offspring, Gaia was the most important, as she is the mother of several Titians and Olympians, grandmother to Zeus, and is also a pantheon, who is often considered to be Mother Titian or the Great Titan. Her powers include strength, stability, and an orderly and safe foundation. 3. Uranus The parentage of Uranus is of course of considerable debate, and several claims state that he was not an offspring of Chaos. Hesiod in Theogony, claims that he was mothered by Gaia, who was also his consort. Uranus is the God of Sky and Atmosphere. Uranus was the father to several children, many of whom were Titians and Olympians. As per the Argive genealogy by Homer, 4 most significant children of Uranus and Gaia include Cronus, Rhea, Oceanus and Tethys. Other children of Uranus include Aphrodite, Theia, Mnemosyne, the Gigantes, Hyperion, Crius, Iapetus, Coeüs, Phoebe, The Cyclopes, Meliae, and the Furies. You may also refer to: Greek God Uranus 4. Tartarus The next significant God is Tartarus, a deep and dark abyss and pit, where souls are judged after death. Tartarus is said to be the originator of light and cosmos. Just like Chaos, Tartarus has an unbound and infinite existence. In Greek mythology, Tartarus is often a symbol for justice, punishment, prison, and a wrath against evil. 5. Eros The details regarding Eros are shrouded with some controversy. He was the primordial God of Sexuality, Lust, Love and Ever Flowing Nature. In short, Eros represents all that is associated with human emotion. It is said that Eros was born to Chaos, along with Gaia and Tartarus. He is also said to be the ‘first light’. Eros has the ability to fly with the wings attached to his back. All are also aware of the Cupid’s powerful arrow of love, which almost all of us have experienced. Apart from these powers, Eros also signifies fertility and reproduction, in some cases. Strangely, Eros is said to be the son of Aphrodite, who was born an entire generation later. 6. Erebus Erebus (Erebos) was the son of Chaos, who represents the darkness between the earth and the underworld. Erebus is represented by shadows and darkness. This deity is said to have filled the nooks and crannies of the world. His power is of darkness. Erebus is the husband of Nyx or Night, and is the father of Aether (outer atmosphere) and Hemera (Day). 7. Nyx Nyx is the Goddess of Night, and was the daughter of Chaos and wife of Erebus. She is simply the Goddess of Night and Darkness, and is the mother of Aether (Outer Atmosphere) and Hemera (Day), as mentioned above. 8. Hemera Among the primordials, the children of Nyx and Erebus are considered to be important as they represented very powerful forces of universe. Hemera was the Goddess of Daylight, and in some cases, was also considered to be the Goddess of the Sun, one of the most powerful sources of life on earth. 9. Aether Aether was the God of Light and Upper Sky (atmosphere). He was repented by the blue sky of the day and the dark blue sky of the night. He was the son of Nyx and Erebus. 10. Zephyr Some Greek mythologies also mention another primordial god, Zephyr, the God of the West Wind. Greek Gods and Goddesses and their Powers: Titans Now, the aforementioned was the first generation of the Greek gods and goddesses. The second generation has a majority of Titans, some of whom waged a war against their father Uranus. Here’s a list of the 12 Titans. Note that this list is not exhaustive, but consists of the most prominent Titans. These titians are specifically the descendants of Gaia and Uranus, who ruled during the Golden Age. Sr No. Name of God Notes/Powers 1. Coeus Son of Gaia and Uranus, Coeus represents the celestial axis around which the earth, heavens and hell revolves. Coeus is supposed to be a giant, externally intelligent and pillar of north, probably the North pole. Sometimes, also known as the inquirer, this God of intelligence is the father of Leto and Asteria, husband and brother of Phoebe (Shining one), and also the grandfather of Artemis and Apollo, through Leto. 2. Phoebe Phoebe is known as the shining one or the bright one, due to her high intelligence. She was the possessor of Delphic oracle. (relations as mentioned above) 3. Cronus Cronus was the leader of the Titians, who is famous or in some cases infamous for his rebellion against his father, Uranus. He used a sickle as his weapon, and is the patron of harvest, and was also the God of Time and Ages, infamously known for his destructive and devouring nature. He was the father to Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hades, Hestia, Demeter, Chiron, the Olympians. He was also brother and husband to Rhea. 4. Rhea Rhea was the mother of the Olympians, and was the Goddess of Fertility, Motherhood, and Generation. She also represents almost all motherly and feminine qualities, such as love, affection, patine and even fierceness. She is flanked by lions and is known to bless the eternal flow of time and generations. (relations as mentioned above). 5. Hyperion Hyperion is the God of Light, and is regarded to be the pillar of the east. With his wife Theia, he fathered 3 children, who much like himself were gods of light, Eos the Dawn, Helios the Sun, and Selene the Moon. Hyperion signifies the term ‘the one from above’. 6. Theia Theia is the Goddess of Sight, and Shining Light. She is also commented to be the gGddess of Gold, Silver and Gems. (relations as stated above). 7. Krios Krios, Crius is the pillar of south, that is the south pole, and is often symbolized by a ram. He is the father of Astraios and Pallas, and husband to Eurybia. 8. Lapetus Lapetus was the Titian with mortal life, and notably grandfather of mankind, as his son Prometheus created mankind. His other sons, Atlas, Epimetheus, and Menoetius, who were fathered through Clymene or Asia, are also associated with the creation of humanity. 9. Mnemosyne Mnemosyne was the Goddess of Memory, and the consort of Zeus in later stages. She mothered the 9 ‘muses’. 10. Tethys Tethys is the Goddess of the Sources of the Fresh Water Sources. She was the consort of Oceanus, God of Oceans, and mothered all the river and sea gods, including the spring nymphs, the Okeanids. 11. Okeanos Okeanos was the God of Oceans and Seas. (relations as mentioned above) 12. Themis Themis was the Goddess of Traditional Rules, Justice and Conduct. She established decorum and laws, and was a prophetic Titan. She was the wife of Zeus with whom she mothered 6 children, who also governed some or the other factions of the universe by laying down laws and rules. Greek Gods and Goddesses and their Powers: Olympians The following is a brief table of the 14 Olympians. Now since we already know a lot above the 12 Olympians, they being the latest rulers and the most common charters in legends and stories, the table is a bit short and swift. Note that many of the Olympians are the children of Rhea and Cronus. Have a look Sr no Name of God or Goddess God of Parentage Children Consorts and Lovers Symbols 1. Aphrodite Love and Beauty Uranus Anteros, Eros, Phobos, Deimos, Harmonia, Aeneas, Hermaphroditos, Himeros,, Rhode, Eryx, Peitho, Tyche, Priapus, Eunomia, Graces, and Pothos Hephaestus and Ares dove, apple and rose, you may also refer to Aphrodite 2. Apollo God of Music, Healing, Plague, Prophecies, Poetry, and Archery, Apollo is most notably called as the Sun God. Zeus and Leto Asclepius, Troilus, Orpheus and Aristaeus laurel wreath, Lyre, raven, python,, bow and arrows 3. Ares Ares is most famously known as the God of War, Bloodlust, Violence, Manly Courage, and Civil Order Zeus and Hera Eros, Anteros, Deimos, Phobos, Harmonia, Phlegyas and Adrestia Aphrodite spear, helmet, dog,chariot, boar 4. Artemis Goddess of the Hunt, Wilderness, Wild Animals, Childbirth and Plague. Read more on: Artemis Zeus and Leto moon, bow, arrows, dog and stags 5. Athena Athena was the Goddess of Wisdom, Warfare, Strategy, Heroic Endeavor, Handicrafts and Reason Zeus and Metis olive tree 6. Demeter Goddess of Fertility, Agriculture, Horticulture, Grain and Harvest Cronus and Rhea Persephone Zeus Cornucopia (horn of plenty) 7. Dionysus God of Wine, Parties and Festivals, Madness, Civilization, Drunkenness and Pleasure. For more inputs you may refer to Dionysus Facts Zeus and Semele Ariadne thyrsus and grapevine 8. Hades Hades was the King of the Underworld and the God of Death, the Dead, and the Hidden Wealth of the Earth Cronus and Rhea Persephone Persephone Macaria, Melinoe, Plutus and Zagreus 3 headed dog 9. Hephaestus Hephaestus was the God of Fire, Metalworking, Stonemasonry, Sculpture and Volcanism. Hera Aphrodite Eucleia, Thalia, Eupheme, and Philophrosyne tongs and anvil 10. Hera Queen of Marriage, Women, Childbirth, Heirs, Kings and Empires Cronus and Rhea Zeus Eris, Ares, Hebe, Enyo, Eileithyia and Hephaestus Peacock feather and pomogreneate 11. Hermes Hermes was the God of Travel, Messengers, Trade, Thievery, Cunning Wiles, Language, Writing, Diplomacy, Athletics, and Animal Husbandry Zeus and Maia Merope, Peitho, Dryope and Aphrodite Caduceus and Talaria 12. Hestia Goddess of the Hearth, Home and Cooking Rhea and Cronus Hearth and Fire 13. Poseidon God of the Sea, Rivers, Floods, Droughts, Storms, Earthquakes and Horses. For more information you may also refer to Poseidon Myths Cronus and Rhea Amphitrite Polyphemus Theseus and Triton Trident 14. Zeus King of the Gods, the ruler of Mount Olympus and the God of the Sky, Weather, Thunder, Law, Order and Fate. For more knowledge about this King of Gods, you may also refer to Greek God Zeus Cronus and Rhea Hera Several including Ares and Hercules Thunderbolt This list is not a complete, and though there are several other additions, the ones listed here and the important and main gods and goddesses. I hope that the elaboration on the list of Greek gods and goddesses and their powers and symbols is a resourceful read. Good luck.